As many employers, and quite a few students, have discovered, unpaid internships can create a number of legal problems. Even though hiring unpaid interns is a common practice -even more popular in these difficult economic times – the fact is that there are relatively few situations in which an unpaid intern can lawfully work in a for-profit business.
Employers need to be on guard because the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) has announced that it is stepping up enforcement of violations. According to the DOL, the key to a valid internship program is that the internship must be primarily for the intern’s benefit – rather than for the employer’s benefit.
There are six factors to be considered in deciding if an unpaid internship is properly established for a private-sector, for-profit business. All of the factors must be met to make the internship legal – regardless of whether the intern voluntarily agrees to work without pay. The factors are:
- The training is similar to what would be provided in a vocational school or educational institution.
- The training is for the benefit of the intern.
- The intern doesn’t displace any regular employees, but works under their close observation.
- The employer derives no immediate advantage from the intern (and on occasion its operations may actually be impeded).
- The intern is not necessarily entitled to a job at the conclusion of the internship.
- Both the employer and the intern understand that the internship is unpaid.